Geography of Coimbatore
- Latitude : 11.00 North
- Longitude : 77.00 East
- Time zone : IST ( UTC + 5 : 30 )
- Area : 105.5 km2 ( 41 sq miles )
Coimbatore is situated in the extreme west of Tamil Nadu, near the state of Kerala. It is surrounded by mountains on the west, with reserve forests and the ( Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve ) on the northern side.
The eastern side of the District, including the city is predominantly dry. The entire western and northern part of the district borders the Western Ghats with the Nilgiri biosphere as well as the Anaimalai and Munnar ranges.
A western pass to Kerala, popularly referred to as the Palghat Gap provides its boundary. Because of its close proximity to the Western Ghats, the district is rich in fauna.
The city lies between 10° 10′ and 11° 30′ of the northern latitude and 76° 40′ and 77° 30′ of eastern longitude in the extreme west of Tamil Nadu near Kerala state at an elevation of 432 metres from sea level. Mean valued to 11.01° N 76.96° E.
It is surrounded by mountains on the west, and with reserve forests and river basin on the northern side, while the eastern side of the district starting from the city is predominantly dry.
The entire western and northern part of the district borders the Western Ghats with Nilgiri biosphere, Anaimalai and Munnar range with a western pass to Kerala popularly referred to as the Palghat Gap providing its boundary.
Due to the presence of the mountain pass, major parts of the district benefit from the south – west monsoon.
It is generally a dry district apart from the Noyyal River basin and occasional over – flowing streams from the Western Ghats, which terminate in the city’s large tanks. The soil is predominantly black soil, which is suitable for cotton cultivation, but it also has some amount of a type of red loamy soil.
Coimbatore falls under Class III / IV Seismic Zone and has experienced a 6.0 Richter scale earthquake in 1900.
The city has six major arterial roads and three National Highways, NH – 47 ( Kanyakumari – Salem ), NH – 67 ( Coimbatore – Nagappattinam ) and NH – 209 ( Bangalore – Dindigul ) passing through the city.
The city has a civil Airport at Peelamedu ( 8 km ) and an air – force base at Sulur ( 12 km ). Broad gauge trains connect to all parts of India and a meter gauge line connects the city to Dindigul. A new by – pass highway completed in 1998 has helped in eliminating much of the truck traffic in the city.
The city Corporation has been allocated inadequate development funds by the State Government despite high revenues which has resulted in slow infrastructure development. Lack of new roads has also resulted in construction of large apartment complexes in areas meant for lower density population.
These are often opposed by the local residents who feel that other spaces available within the city limits are not being developed due to the lack of infrastructure in those areas.
Apart from the species common to the plains, wild elephants, wild boars leopards, tigers, bison, various species of deer, Nilgiri Tahr, sloth bear and black-headed Oriole can also be found.
The Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary ( 88 km ) in the Western Ghats at an altitude of 1,400 meters covers an area of 958 km².
Among the region’s livestock animals are Kangeyam breed bulls ( cross – bred by Mandradiar family in 17th century to suit the terrain ).
This breed, which helped the region gain a foothold in the dairy industry is found only in Coimbatore and neighbouring districts. More than 20% of the district is classified as forest, lying in the west and north.
The Nilgiris slope of the Mettupalayam range is rich in sandalwood trees and bamboo. They vary from rich tropical evergreen forests of Punachi range to jungles of shrubs in southern ranges.